E-ISSN 2536-9520 | ISSN 1110-2047
 

Review Article 


A Review: Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Assessment in Ruminant Farms

Naga-Chandra Roaa, Lawan Adamua, d, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullaha,*, Abd Wahid Harona, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lilab, Annas Sallehb, Wan Lutfi Bin Wan Joharic.

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  • Abstract
    Water is an essential part in any livestock production and it is more so in ruminant production that is highly water intensive. Water is not only essential as a medium of animal metabolism, but it is also an important cleaning medium. Therefore, it is important that the quality of drinking water is maintained at a certain level so as to lessen the possible adverse effects on the animals. Despite there being some standards set by the various agencies on the minimal water quality deemed suitable for livestock consumption, they are still vague and this, combined with poor compliance and the water sourcing of dubious sources in ruminant farms makes it hard to regulate the drinking water quality in ruminant farms. This, in turn, might lead to possible adverse effects in livestock production due to water contaminants. At the same time, most ruminant farms in Malaysia do not do proper treatment of their wastewater before releasing them into water bodies such as drains, rivers and lakes which could lead to possible adverse effects to the environment.

    Key words: Drinking water, wastewater, quality, livestock


     
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    Pubmed Style

    Naga-Chandra Roaa, Lawan Adamua, d, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullaha,, Abd Wahid Harona, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lilab, Annas Sallehb, Wan Lutfi Bin Wan Joharic. A Review: Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Assessment in Ruminant Farms. AJVS. 2018; 57(1): 11-16. doi:10.5455/ajvs.291080


    Web Style

    Naga-Chandra Roaa, Lawan Adamua, d, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullaha,, Abd Wahid Harona, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lilab, Annas Sallehb, Wan Lutfi Bin Wan Joharic. A Review: Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Assessment in Ruminant Farms. http://www.alexjvs.com/?mno=291080 [Access: November 17, 2018]. doi:10.5455/ajvs.291080


    AMA (American Medical Association) Style

    Naga-Chandra Roaa, Lawan Adamua, d, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullaha,, Abd Wahid Harona, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lilab, Annas Sallehb, Wan Lutfi Bin Wan Joharic. A Review: Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Assessment in Ruminant Farms. AJVS. 2018; 57(1): 11-16. doi:10.5455/ajvs.291080



    Vancouver/ICMJE Style

    Naga-Chandra Roaa, Lawan Adamua, d, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullaha,, Abd Wahid Harona, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lilab, Annas Sallehb, Wan Lutfi Bin Wan Joharic. A Review: Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Assessment in Ruminant Farms. AJVS. (2018), [cited November 17, 2018]; 57(1): 11-16. doi:10.5455/ajvs.291080



    Harvard Style

    Naga-Chandra Roaa, Lawan Adamua, d, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullaha,, Abd Wahid Harona, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lilab, Annas Sallehb, Wan Lutfi Bin Wan Joharic (2018) A Review: Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Assessment in Ruminant Farms. AJVS, 57 (1), 11-16. doi:10.5455/ajvs.291080



    Turabian Style

    Naga-Chandra Roaa, Lawan Adamua, d, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullaha,, Abd Wahid Harona, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lilab, Annas Sallehb, Wan Lutfi Bin Wan Joharic. 2018. A Review: Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Assessment in Ruminant Farms. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 57 (1), 11-16. doi:10.5455/ajvs.291080



    Chicago Style

    Naga-Chandra Roaa, Lawan Adamua, d, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullaha,, Abd Wahid Harona, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lilab, Annas Sallehb, Wan Lutfi Bin Wan Joharic. "A Review: Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Assessment in Ruminant Farms." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 57 (2018), 11-16. doi:10.5455/ajvs.291080



    MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

    Naga-Chandra Roaa, Lawan Adamua, d, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullaha,, Abd Wahid Harona, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lilab, Annas Sallehb, Wan Lutfi Bin Wan Joharic. "A Review: Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Assessment in Ruminant Farms." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 57.1 (2018), 11-16. Print. doi:10.5455/ajvs.291080



    APA (American Psychological Association) Style

    Naga-Chandra Roaa, Lawan Adamua, d, Jesse Faez Firdaus Abdullaha,, Abd Wahid Harona, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lilab, Annas Sallehb, Wan Lutfi Bin Wan Joharic (2018) A Review: Drinking Water and Wastewater Quality Assessment in Ruminant Farms. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 57 (1), 11-16. doi:10.5455/ajvs.291080





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