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Original Research (Original Article) Open Access


The architectural and functional specifications of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus)

Mahmoud S. Gewaily, Masoud H. Fayed, Foad A. Farrag.

Abstract
This study provides quantitative anatomical data on the muscle–tendon units of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the domesticated goat specifically; muscle mass, volume, fascicle length, tendon mass, tendon volume, and tendon rest length. From these measurements, the physiological cross sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force (Fmax), in addition to tendon stress and tendon strain were calculated for each muscle. A total of 180 muscles (60 from each cadaver; 30 in each limb) were dissected to examine each muscle functional specifications and their role in limb function. The largest muscle mass was revealed to have the largest volume, long fascicle length and the highest capacity for force production. Within the functional groups of muscles, the proportion of muscle mass, muscle volume, PCSA as well as force generation was the greatest for the shoulder flexors followed by shoulder extensors. This is suitable for their role in weight bearing. The muscles working on joints of digits were having long tendons with high cross section area (CSA) and architecture index (AI) and thus were functionally suited to elastic energy storage needed for digital movement. In conclusion, architecture properties are crucial factors for determination of muscle function.

Key words: Goat, fore limb, Muscle Architecture.


 
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Pubmed Style

Gewaily MS, Fayed MH, Farrag FA. The architectural and functional specifications of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). AJVS. 2017; 55(1): 110-124. doi:10.5455/ajvs.280875


Web Style

Gewaily MS, Fayed MH, Farrag FA. The architectural and functional specifications of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). http://www.alexjvs.com//?mno=280875 [Access: December 18, 2017]. doi:10.5455/ajvs.280875


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Gewaily MS, Fayed MH, Farrag FA. The architectural and functional specifications of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). AJVS. 2017; 55(1): 110-124. doi:10.5455/ajvs.280875



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Gewaily MS, Fayed MH, Farrag FA. The architectural and functional specifications of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). AJVS. (2017), [cited December 18, 2017]; 55(1): 110-124. doi:10.5455/ajvs.280875



Harvard Style

Gewaily, M. S., Fayed, M. H. & Farrag, F. A. (2017) The architectural and functional specifications of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). AJVS, 55 (1), 110-124. doi:10.5455/ajvs.280875



Turabian Style

Gewaily, Mahmoud S., Masoud H. Fayed, and Foad A. Farrag. 2017. The architectural and functional specifications of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 55 (1), 110-124. doi:10.5455/ajvs.280875



Chicago Style

Gewaily, Mahmoud S., Masoud H. Fayed, and Foad A. Farrag. "The architectural and functional specifications of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus)." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 55 (2017), 110-124. doi:10.5455/ajvs.280875



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Gewaily, Mahmoud S., Masoud H. Fayed, and Foad A. Farrag. "The architectural and functional specifications of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus)." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 55.1 (2017), 110-124. Print. doi:10.5455/ajvs.280875



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Gewaily, M. S., Fayed, M. H. & Farrag, F. A. (2017) The architectural and functional specifications of intrinsic muscles of the fore limb of the Egyptian Baladi goats (Capra hircus). Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 55 (1), 110-124. doi:10.5455/ajvs.280875





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