E-ISSN 2536-9520 | ISSN 1110-2047
 

Original Research (Original Article) 


Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue Disease and Camel Brucellosis in Animals Imported into Libya

Fawzi O. Ebrahim, Abdul-munam M. Fellah, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil S. Enattah, Fergani Karem, Fadella Abosrer, Kholoud Mostafa, Osama Alwaer, Almahadi Hassan, Milad Farhat, Amin Bredan, Nagib Elmarzugi.

Abstract
Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs) pose serious worldwide risks to livestock and food security, as well as to humans. The world has been facing severe economic losses from epidemics of, for example, foot and mouth disease (FMD) and blue tongue disease (BT). After the turmoil of the Arab Spring in 2011, the patterns of livestock movement between North African countries such as Libya and sub-Saharan Africa have changed, potentially increasing the spread of TADs. We investigated the seroprevalence of FMD and BTV in sheep and cows and brucellosis in camels that had either been imported into Libya or brought illegally across the southern border. The animals were sampled in the sea ports of Tripoli and Misrata on the Mediterranean coast and in the southern city of Sabha. All the sheep and cows at the sea ports had been imported from Spain or France, and none of them was seropositive for FMD or BT. But among the sample of livestock that had come into the country illegally into Sabha, 48.7% of the sheep were seropositive for BTV and 17.5% for FMD, and 2.2% of the camels were seropositive for brucellosis. Urgent measures are needed to control the illegal influx of livestock through the southern border and to prevent the local spread of FMD and BT.

Key words: Key words: Trans-boundary animal disease (TADs), Foot and Mouth Diseases (FMD) Blue Tongue (BTV), camel brucellosis


 
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Pubmed Style

Fawzi O. Ebrahim, Abdul-munam M. Fellah, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil S. Enattah, Fergani Karem, Fadella Abosrer, Kholoud Mostafa, Osama Alwaer, Almahadi Hassan, Milad Farhat, Amin Bredan, Nagib Elmarzugi. Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue Disease and Camel Brucellosis in Animals Imported into Libya. AJVS. 2017; 54(1): 97-100. doi:10.5455/ajvs.246277


Web Style

Fawzi O. Ebrahim, Abdul-munam M. Fellah, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil S. Enattah, Fergani Karem, Fadella Abosrer, Kholoud Mostafa, Osama Alwaer, Almahadi Hassan, Milad Farhat, Amin Bredan, Nagib Elmarzugi. Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue Disease and Camel Brucellosis in Animals Imported into Libya. http://www.alexjvs.com/?mno=246277 [Access: February 09, 2020]. doi:10.5455/ajvs.246277


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Fawzi O. Ebrahim, Abdul-munam M. Fellah, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil S. Enattah, Fergani Karem, Fadella Abosrer, Kholoud Mostafa, Osama Alwaer, Almahadi Hassan, Milad Farhat, Amin Bredan, Nagib Elmarzugi. Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue Disease and Camel Brucellosis in Animals Imported into Libya. AJVS. 2017; 54(1): 97-100. doi:10.5455/ajvs.246277



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Fawzi O. Ebrahim, Abdul-munam M. Fellah, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil S. Enattah, Fergani Karem, Fadella Abosrer, Kholoud Mostafa, Osama Alwaer, Almahadi Hassan, Milad Farhat, Amin Bredan, Nagib Elmarzugi. Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue Disease and Camel Brucellosis in Animals Imported into Libya. AJVS. (2017), [cited February 09, 2020]; 54(1): 97-100. doi:10.5455/ajvs.246277



Harvard Style

Fawzi O. Ebrahim, Abdul-munam M. Fellah, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil S. Enattah, Fergani Karem, Fadella Abosrer, Kholoud Mostafa, Osama Alwaer, Almahadi Hassan, Milad Farhat, Amin Bredan, Nagib Elmarzugi (2017) Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue Disease and Camel Brucellosis in Animals Imported into Libya. AJVS, 54 (1), 97-100. doi:10.5455/ajvs.246277



Turabian Style

Fawzi O. Ebrahim, Abdul-munam M. Fellah, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil S. Enattah, Fergani Karem, Fadella Abosrer, Kholoud Mostafa, Osama Alwaer, Almahadi Hassan, Milad Farhat, Amin Bredan, Nagib Elmarzugi. 2017. Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue Disease and Camel Brucellosis in Animals Imported into Libya. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 54 (1), 97-100. doi:10.5455/ajvs.246277



Chicago Style

Fawzi O. Ebrahim, Abdul-munam M. Fellah, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil S. Enattah, Fergani Karem, Fadella Abosrer, Kholoud Mostafa, Osama Alwaer, Almahadi Hassan, Milad Farhat, Amin Bredan, Nagib Elmarzugi. "Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue Disease and Camel Brucellosis in Animals Imported into Libya." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 54 (2017), 97-100. doi:10.5455/ajvs.246277



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Fawzi O. Ebrahim, Abdul-munam M. Fellah, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil S. Enattah, Fergani Karem, Fadella Abosrer, Kholoud Mostafa, Osama Alwaer, Almahadi Hassan, Milad Farhat, Amin Bredan, Nagib Elmarzugi. "Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue Disease and Camel Brucellosis in Animals Imported into Libya." Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 54.1 (2017), 97-100. Print. doi:10.5455/ajvs.246277



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Fawzi O. Ebrahim, Abdul-munam M. Fellah, Adam Elzagheid, Nabil S. Enattah, Fergani Karem, Fadella Abosrer, Kholoud Mostafa, Osama Alwaer, Almahadi Hassan, Milad Farhat, Amin Bredan, Nagib Elmarzugi (2017) Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease, Blue Tongue Disease and Camel Brucellosis in Animals Imported into Libya. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 54 (1), 97-100. doi:10.5455/ajvs.246277





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